Tuesday, 30 October 2012

Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna....

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
International Society for Krishna Consciousness

Krishna and Radha with Gopis, image at ISKCON Mayapur temple
AbbreviationISKCON
Formation1966
TypeReligious
Purpose/focusEducational
Religious studies
Spirituality
HeadquartersMayapur, West Bengal, India
Region servedWorldwide
Founder-AcharyaBhaktivedanta Swami
AffiliationsGaudiya Vaishnavism
The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), known colloquially as the Hare Krishna movement or Hare Krishnas, is a Gaudiya Vaishnava religious organization.[1] It was founded in 1965 in New York City by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada.[2] Its core beliefs are based on traditional Hindu scriptures, such as the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam and the Bhagavad-gītā,[3] both of which, according to the traditional Hindu view, date back more than 5,000 years. The distinctive appearance of the movement and its culture come from the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition, which has had adherents in India since the late 15th century and Western converts since the early 1930s.[4]
ISKCON was formed to spread the practice of bhakti yoga, in which aspirant devotees (bhaktas) dedicate their thoughts and actions towards pleasing the Supreme Lord, Krishna.[5][6] ISKCON today is a worldwide confederation of more than 400 centers, including 60 farm communities, some aiming for self-sufficiency, 50 schools and 90 restaurants.[7] In recent decades the movement's most rapid expansions in terms of numbers of membership have been within Eastern Europe (especially since the collapse of the Soviet Union) and India.[8]

Contents

[hide]

[edit] Beliefs and history

Pancha-Tattva deities: Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Nityananda, Advaita Acharya, Gadadhara and Srivasa, installed in a Gaudiya Vaishnava temple
ISKCON's Bhajan during Navratri Golu at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
For further information see: Achintya Bheda Abheda and Gaudiya Vaishnavism
ISKCON devotees follow a disciplic line of Gaudiya Bhagavata Vaishnavas and are the largest branch of Gaudiya Vaishnavism.[9] Vaishnavism means 'worship of Vishnu', and Gauḍa refers to the area where this particular branch of Vaishnavism originated, in the Gauda region of West Bengal. Gaudiya Vaishnavism has had a following in India, especially West Bengal and Orissa, for the past five hundred years. Bhaktivedanta Swami disseminated Gaudiya Vaishnava Theology in the Western world through extensive writings and translations,[10] including the Bhagavad Gita, Srimad Bhagavatam (Bhagavata Purana), Chaitanya Charitamrita, and other scriptures. These works are now available in more than seventy languages and serve as the canon of ISKCON. Many are available online from a number of websites.[11][12]
Early Western conversions to monotheistic Krishna Vaisnavism or the Bhagavata Vaisnava line which forms the basis of the ISKCON philosophy were recorded by the Greeks and are reflected in the archaeological record.[13][14]
Krishna is described as the source of all the avatars.[15] Thus ISKCON devotees worship Krishna as the highest form of God, svayam bhagavan, and often refer to Him as "the Supreme Personality of Godhead" in writing, which was a phrase coined by Prabhupada in his books on the subject. To devotees, Radha represents Krishna's divine female counterpart, the original spiritual potency, and the embodiment of divine love. The individual soul is an eternal personal identity which does not ultimately merge into any formless light or void as suggested by the monistic (Advaita) schools of Hinduism. Prabhupada most frequently offers Sanatana-dharma and Varnashrama dharma as more accurate names for the religious system which accepts Vedic authority.[16] It is a monotheistic tradition which has its roots in the theistic Vedanta traditions.[17]

[edit] Hare Krishna mantra

Mahamantra in Bengali script
The popular nickname of "Hare Krishnas" for devotees of this movement comes from the mantra that devotees sing aloud (kirtan) or chant quietly (japa) on tulsi mala. This mantra, known also as the Maha Mantra, contains the names of God Krishna and Rama.
The Maha Mantra:
Hare Krishna Hare Krishna
Krishna Krishna Hare Hare
Hare Rama Hare Rama
Rama Rama Hare Hare
ISKON volunteers at Melbourne

[edit] Seven purposes of ISKCON

Ratha Yatra festival in Moscow, Russia.
ISKCON Vrindavan
Public street festivals are a significant part of ISKCONs outreach programmes. Seen here is a Ratha Yatra festival in central London.
When Srila Prabhupada first incorporated ISKCON in 1966, he gave it seven purposes:[18]
  1. To systematically propagate spiritual knowledge to society at large and to educate all people in the techniques of spiritual life in order to check the imbalance of values in life and to achieve real unity and peace in the world.
  2. To propagate a consciousness of Krishna, as it is revealed in the Bhagavad-gita and the Srimad-Bhagavatam.
  3. To bring the members of the Society together with each other and nearer to Krishna, the prime entity, thus to develop the idea within the members, and humanity at large, that each soul is part and parcel of the quality of Godhead (Krishna).
  4. To teach and encourage the sankirtana movement, congregational chanting of the holy names of God as revealed in the teachings of Lord Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
  5. To erect for the members, and for society at large, a holy place of transcendental pastimes, dedicated to the personality of Krishna.
  6. To bring the members closer together for the purpose of teaching a simpler and more natural way of life.
  7. With a view towards achieving the aforementioned purposes, to publish and distribute periodicals, magazines, books and other writings.

[edit] Four regulative principles

Bhaktivedanta Swami prescribed four regulative principles, in relation to the four legs of dharma,[19] as the basis of the spiritual life:
  • No eating of meat (including fish) or eggs (lacto-vegetarianism)
  • No illicit sex. Sex allowed only if married and only to produce children
  • No gambling
  • No intoxication (including alcohol, caffeine, tobacco and other recreational drugs).
The four legs of Dharma are:[19]

[edit] Preaching activities

ISKCON is known for their energetic active preaching. Members try to spread Krishna consciousness, primarily by singing the Hare Krishna mantra in public places and by selling books written by Bhaktivedanta Swami.[20] Both of these activities are known within the movement as Sankirtan. A study conducted by E. Burke Rochford Jr. at the University of California found that there are four types of contact between those in ISKCON and prospective members. Those include: individually motivated contact, contact made with members in public arenas, contact made through personal connections, and contact with sympathizers of the movement who strongly sway people to join.[21] According to the doctrine of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, one does not need to be born in a Hindu family to take up the practice of Vaishnavism. There are ISKCON communities around the world with schools, restaurants and farms. In general, funds collected by ISKCON are treated as communal property and used to support the community as a whole and to promote the preaching mission.[22] Many temples also have programs (like Food for Life) to provide meals for the needy. Also, ISKCON has recently brought the academic study of Krishna into western academia as Krishnology.

[edit] Educational activities

The ISKCON Ministry of Education regulates educational activities within ISKCON, and oversees the operation of primary, secondary, tertiary, and seminary schools and centers of education.
The Ministry of Education also oversees education for religious and sastric study, developed and monitored by the UK-based Vaisnava Training and Education organisation.

[edit] Bhaktivedanta Institute

The Bhaktivedanta Institute (BI) is the scientific research branch of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness. Founded in 1976 by Bhaktivedanta Swami and Bhaktivedanta Swaroop Dahmodar, it advances the study of the nature and origin of life, utilizing Vedic insights into consciousness, the self, and the origin of the universe. BI motto in Sanskrit language: "Athato brahma jijnasa" "One should inquire into the Supreme." BI has established the world's first graduate degree program (M.S./Ph.D) in consciousness studies at Mumbai in collaboration with the Birla Institute of Technology and Science, one of India's top technical schools. Subjects include Life Sciences, Artificial Intelligence, Mathematics and Philosophy of Science. Currently Ravi Gomatam is the Director of Bhaktivedanta Institute.

[edit] Food for Life

Member of Food for Life Russia giving food
ISKCON has inspired, and sometimes sponsored, a project called Food for Life. The goal of the project is to "liberally distribute pure vegetarian meals (prasadam) throughout the world", as inspired by Bhaktivedanta Swami's instruction, given to his disciples in 1974, "No one within ten miles of a temple should go hungry . . . I want you to immediately begin serving food".[23] The international headquarters known as Food for Life Global site, established by Paul Rodney Turner (ref) and Mukunda Goswami,[24] coordinates the project. Food for Life is currently active in over sixty countries and serves up to 2 million free meals every day.[24] Its welfare achievements have been noted by The New York Times and other media worldwide.[25][26][27][28]

[edit] Management structure

Satsvarupa dasa Gosvami (left) one of the original members of the Commission, in 1970 known under alias Sriman Satsvarupa Das Adhikary, with his disciple Yadunandana Swami (right), principal of Bhaktivedanta College
Bhaktivedanta Swami spent much of the last decade of his life setting up the institution of ISKCON. As a charismatic leader, Bhaktivedanta Swami's personality and management had been responsible for much of the growth of ISKCON and the reach of his mission.[29][30]
The Governing Body Commission (or GBC) was created by Bhaktivedanta Swami in 1970.[31] In a document Direction of Management written on 28 July 1970 Prabhupada appointed the following members to the commission, all of them non sannyasi:[29]
  1. Sriman Rupanuga Das Adhikary
  2. Sriman Bhagavan Das Adhikary
  3. Sriman Syamsundar Das Adhikary
  4. Sriman Satsvarupa Das Adhikary
  5. Sriman Karandhar Das Adhikary
  6. Sriman Hansadutta Das Adhikary
  7. Sriman Tamala Krsna Das Adhikary
  8. Sriman Sudama Das Adhikary
  9. Sriman Bali Mardan Das Brahmacary
  10. Sriman Jagadisa Das Adhikary
  11. Sriman Hayagriva Das Adhikary
  12. Sriman Kṛṣṇadas Adhikary
The letter outlined the following purposes of the commission: 1) improving the standard of temple management, 2) the spread of Krishna consciousness, 3) the distribution of books and literature, 4) the opening of new centers, 5) the education of the devotees. GBC has since grown in size to include 48 senior members from the movement who make decisions based on consensus of opinion rather than any one person having ultimate authority.[29][32] It has continued to manage affairs since Prabhupada's passing in 1977 although it is currently a self-elected organization and does not follow the provision where Srila Prabhupada instructs that members be elected by temple presidents.

[edit] Influential leaders since 1977

Rajiv Gandhi with Hare Krishna devotees in New Delhi (1989).
See also: Principal disciples of A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami.
Before his death, Prabhupada "deputed"[33] or appointed the following eleven of his disciples to serve as gurus[34][35] or to continue to direct the organization:[36] Satsvarupa Dasa Goswami,[37][38] Jayapataka Swami,[39] Hridayananda Dasa Goswami, Tamal Krishna Goswami,[40] Bhavananda Goswami, Hansadutta Swami, Ramesvara Swami, Harikesa Swami, Bhagavan Dasa, Kirtanananda Swami, and Jayatirtha Dasa. These eleven "Western Gurus were selected as spiritual heads" of the ISKCON after 1977, however "many problems followed from their appointment and the movement had since veered away from investing absolute authority in a few, fallible, human teachers",[41] however of these eleven, the first three have remained prominent leaders within the movement, as was Tamal Krishna Goswami until his death in a car accident in March 2002. Bhavananda no longer holds the post of an initiating guru. Ramesvara, Bhagavan and Harikesa resigned as spiritual leaders in 1985, 1987 and 1999 respectively and the remaining three were all expelled from the movement by the Governing Body Commission during the 1980s.[42] Of Prabhupada's disciples, who number 4,734 in total,[43] approximately 70 are now acting as diksha gurus within ISKCON. As of April 2011, ISKCON had a total of 100 sannyasis, most of whom were acting as gurus (see List of International Society for Krishna Consciousness sannyasis).

[edit] Internal problems and controversy

In the years following Bhaktivedanta Swami's death in November 1977, a number of theological controversies arose:[44]

[edit] Origin of the soul

Bhaktivedanta Swami explained that the soul falls from the spiritual world to this material world and that the supreme objective of the human life is to become Krishna-conscious to be able to return "Back to Godhead" (also the title of the official ISKCON magazine). However when translations of important Vaishnava texts began to appear that seemed at variance with these teachings[clarification needed], controversy arose.[44][45]

[edit] Rasika-bhakti

The elder sannyasi Bhaktivedanta Narayana Goswami was a disciple of A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami's sannyasa guru and was long a well-wisher of ISKCON. A small group of prominent ISKCON leaders were closer to his association and Bhaktivedanta Narayana made no effort to conceal his relationship with them, which as time went on became increasingly intimate. His emphasis on gopi-bhava, the mood of Krishna's cowherd lovers, particularly disturbed his ISKCON audiences since Bhaktivedanta Swami had stressed that the path of spontaneous devotion was only for liberated souls. At the annual GBC meeting in 1993, members questioned their affiliation with Bhaktivedanta Narayana. Those involved minimised the seriousness of the relationship, though for some it had been going on for as long as five years. By the next annual meeting, the GBC forced the involved members to promise to greatly restrict further association with their new teacher. Though adhering externally, their sympathies for Bhaktivedanta Narayana's teachings were unabated. In 1995 GBC position was firm and the controversy was first on the 1995 annual meeting's agenda. A week of thorough investigation brought the implicated members in line. Asked to suggest what they might do to make amends, the leaders involved with the controversy tendered their resignations, which the GBC promptly refused. They further volunteered to refrain from initiating new disciples or visiting Vrindavana until their case could be reassessed the following year and at the March 1996 meeting GBC insisted on maintaining most of the restrictions.[44]
While the capitulation of the GBC members previously following Bhaktivedanta Narayana has certainly demonstrated GBC solidarity it was insufficient to prevent a continued exodus of devotees who feel unable to repose full faith in the ISKCON Governing Body Commission authority.[44]

[edit] The Guru and the Parampara

ISKCON adheres to the traditional system of paramparā, or disciplic succession, in which teachings upheld by scriptures are handed down from master to disciple, generation after generation.[46] A minority of people who express faith in Srila Prabhupada's teachings say that Srila Prabhupada, in contrast to the tradition, intended that after his physical demise he would continue to initiate disciples through ceremonial priests, called ritviks. One version of this idea is espoused by a group calling itself the ISKCON Revival Movement.[47] ISKCON's Governing Body Commission has rejected all such ideas. [48]

[edit] Issues within the society

ISKCON also experienced a number of significant internal problems, the majority of which occurred from the late seventies onwards, and especially within the decade following Prabhupada's death.[49]
In 1976 a case involving allegations of "brainwashing" involving a minor named Robin George and her parents went all the way to the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1983, a California jury awarded the family more than $32 million in damages for false imprisonment and other charges, which was reduced to $485,000 in 1993.[50][51]
Also ISKCON has been subject matter of discussion in some anti-cult movements.[52][53][54] Indologist Klaus Klostermaier has described ISKCON as "the most genuinely Hindu of all the many Indian movements in the West",[55] and as to its fortieth anniversary in America, as "having been successful on the basis of longevity", having "undergone changes to its goals and identity".[56]
Stories of child abuse at the society's boarding schools in India and America began to emerge in the 1980s, with cases dating back from the mid-1970s onwards.[57] Some of these cases later appeared in print, such as in John Hubner and Lindsay Gruson's 1988 book Monkey on a Stick. In 1998 an official publication produced by ISKCON detailed the physical, emotional, and sexual abuse of children at the society's boarding schools in both India and the U.S. during the 1970s and 1980s.[58] Later ISKCON was sued by 95 people who had attended the schools. Facing the fiscal drain likely to ensue from this legal action, the ISKCON centers involved declared Chapter 11 bankruptcy. This allowed them to work out a settlement of US$9.5 million, meant to compensate not only the former students who had brought the suit but also any others who had undergone abuse but had not sued.[59]
To guard against further abuses, ISKCON has established a child protection office with teams worldwide, meant to screen out actual or potential abusers, educate children and adults on child abuse, and encourage due vigilance.[60] A petition circulating (as of July 2006) among ISKCON members calls for "zero tolerance" for past offenders.
In response to the need to establish transparency and accountability among its members, ISKCON encouraged the establishment of an ombudsman organization, ISKCON Resolve.[61]
There have been also allegations in relation to murders and fraud linked to the ISKCON movement, with ex-member and guru Kirtanananda Swami convicted.[62]

[edit] Rath Yatra controversy

An ISKCON Rath Yatra festival in New York City, USA
ISKCON organises Rath Yatra festivals in different countries around the world, including India. Although held once annually in each location, these festivals occur on different dates throughout the summertime, which is marked difference from the Rath Yatra as held at the Jagannatha temple in Puri (where the festival originates). At this temple, the Rath Yatra festival is held once each year on a specific date in July, and complaints have recently been made regarding ISKCON's having their international festivals at significantly different times to this.[63]
On December 20, 2007 the Puri priests held a demonstration saying "a number of non-Hindus foreigners under the cover of ISKCON were trying to enter the temple", which is not allowed by that temple's tradition (only Hindus, whether Indian or foreigners are traditionally allowed in that temple).[64] In two incidents, the priests drove out nine Indonesian men (converts to Hinduism) who were said to have changed religion solely to enter the temple. Police later assisted the men in entering the structure. The validity of this temple policy has been questioned in the media on a number of occasions,[65] especially since this ban was imposed by a British collector in 1805.[66]

[edit] In popular culture

Krishna Vally temple near Melbourne
Iskcon temple in Andhra Pradesh, India
Eco-house - promoting sustainable living at Krishna Vally near Melbourne
The Hare Krishna mantra appears in a number of famous songs, notably those sung by The Beatles (and solo works of John Lennon, George Harrison, notably on his hit "My Sweet Lord", and Ringo Starr). There is a reference to singing kirtan of Hare Krishna mantra in The Beatles' "I Am the Walrus" (the line "Elementary penguins singing Hare Krishna"). Ringo Starr's song "It Don't Come Easy" contains the words "Hare Krishna!" and was written with the help of George Harrison. Later Paul McCartney produced a single with a picture of Krishna riding on a swan on the cover, although there was not any chanting of Krishna's names inside. Of the four Beatles members, only Harrison was actually a member of ISKCON, and after he posthumously received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2009, his son Dhani Harrison uttered the phrase "Hare Krishna" during the ceremony.[67] The contemporary Broadway Musical Hair also included a song (credited as "Be-In") that included the mantra.
Hüsker Dü's 1984 album Zen Arcade combines portions of the Hare Krishna mantra with the melody of The Strangeloves' "I Want Candy" in the song "Hare Krishna". In one of Aerosmith's songs off of their 1997 album, Nine Lives, whose original cover caused some controversy with Hindus, a line in the song, 'The Farm', says, "I wanna be a Hare Krishna, tattoo a dot right on my head, and the prozac is my fixer, I am the living dead". The mantra also appears in The Pretenders' Boots of Chinese Plastic.[68] One song from 1969 by the Radha Krishna Temple, simply entitled Hare Krishna Mantra reached no. 12 in the UK music chart and appeared on the music show Top of the Pops. It also made the no. 3 slot in German and no. 1 in Czechoslovakian music charts. Less well-known but equally relevant to fans of pop music culture are recordings of the Hare Krishna mantra by The Fugs on their 1968 album Tenderness Junction (featuring poet Allen Ginsberg) and by Nina Hagen.[69]
The 1980 film Airplane! features several Hare Krishnas, led by the actor David Leisure. The 1979 The Muppet Movie has a running gag where someone always says "Have you tried Hare Krishna?" every time someone mentions that they are lost. In the 1978 movie Dawn of the Dead, a Hare Krishna zombie can be seen. In the 1981 movie Stripes, the character of Russell Ziskey played by Harold Ramis is seen dancing around and chanting 'Hare Krishna! Hare Krishna!' after having his head shaved upon entering basic training for the U.S. Army. Also, in the 2001 television series Scrubs, the character JD is seen dancing, chanting and playing the tambourine with a group of Hare Krishnas after having his head shaved to support a patient with Leukaemia.
Dev Anand in 1971 directed movie "Hare Rama Hare Krishna (1971 film)". Although the movie talked about the hippie culture, the movie has a famous song based on the words "Hare Rama Hare Krishna".
The Rockstar game Grand Theft Auto features groups of Hare Krishna throughout its fictional cities. The game controversially gives the player a 'GOURANGA' bonus for running over an entire procession.
In a fifth-season episode of Mad Men ("Christmas Waltz," May 20, 2012), set in December 1966, it is revealed that the character Paul Kinsey (played by Michael Gladis) has joined the Hare Krishna movement. He is depicted as having shaved his head and participates in early ISKCON meetings led by Prabhupada in New York City.

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Gibson 2002, p. 4
  2. ^ Gibson 2002, p. 6
  3. ^ Klostermaier, Klaus (1998). A Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1-85168-175-2
  4. ^ Sadananda.com dedicated to direct western disciples of Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura Sadananda.com
  5. ^ srimadbhagavatam.com, Bhag.Purana 1.3.28, "All of the above-mentioned incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord, but Lord Sri Krishna is the original Personality of Godhead."
  6. ^ Guy Beck 2005, p. 39, page 39 'According to Orthodox Gaudiya. Krishna's svarupa, or true form manifests in three ways. His svayam-rupa or transcendent form is self-existent, not dependent on anything. His tadekatma rupa is identical in essence to his true form, though it differs in appearance (and would include such forms of Krishna as Narayana and Vasudeva). His avesa form has Krishna appearing though in varying degrees of possession'
  7. ^ "Directory of ISKCON". Directory.krishna.com. http://directory.krishna.com. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  8. ^ Cole Dwayer 2007, p. 38
  9. ^ Bryant & Ekstrand 2004, p. 34
  10. ^ A Hinduism, Page 8, Lynne Gibson, 2002
  11. ^ Vedabase.net
  12. ^ "Srila Prabhupada's books from Veda Encyclopedia". Veda.harekrsna.cz. http://veda.harekrsna.cz/encyclopedia/spbooks.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  13. ^ Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics By James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray, 1926. Page 571 on on early worship of Vasudeva-Krishna.
  14. ^ Gokhale, Balkrishna Govind (1959). Ancient India, History and Culture – by Balkrishna Govind Gokhale – Page 162 on early Greek conversions and worship of Vasudeva-Krishna. Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/?id=JnA_AAAAMAAJ&q=Krsna+worship+column+vasudeva&dq=Krsna+worship+column+vasudeva. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  15. ^ Gibson 2002, p. 18
  16. ^ Brzezinski, J. "Vol 6, No 2 December 1998 ICJ". www.iskcon.com. http://content.iskcon.com/icj/6_2/62jagat.html.
  17. ^ Laderman, Gary (2003). Religion and American Cultures: An Encyclopedia of Traditions, Diversity, and Popular Expressions. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-238-X.
  18. ^ Satsvarupa, Dasa Goswami (1981,2002). Srila Prabhupada Lilamrta Vol 1. BBT. p. 1133. ISBN 0892133570(2 volume edition 2002)
  19. ^ a b "The Four Legs of Dharma". Vedabase.net. http://vedabase.net/sb/1/17/24/. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  20. ^ Krishna Consciousness in the West – David G. Bromley, Prof. Larry D. Shinn, 1989, Page 149
  21. ^ Rochford, E Burke, Jr.Recruitment Strategies, Ideology, and Organization in he Hare Krishna Movement Social Problems Vol.29, No 4 1982
  22. ^ Hare Krishna Transformed, E. Burke Rochford, 2007. Page 67
  23. ^ "History of Food for Life". ffl.org. 1995-12-12. http://www.ffl.org/about/. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  24. ^ a b "About Food for Life Global". Ffl.org. http://www.ffl.org/ffl_about.php. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  25. ^ "New York Times, Dec 1995". Ffl.org. http://www.ffl.org/emergency-relief/new-york-times/. Retrieved 2009-10-01. [dead link]
  26. ^ "The Hindu: A meal from Lord Krishna". Thehindujobs.com. 2002-11-21. http://www.thehindujobs.com/thehindu/mp/2002/11/21/stories/2002112100600200.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  27. ^ "European Vegetarian and Animal News Agency". EVANA. 2006-01-02. http://www.evana.org/index.php?id=7759. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  28. ^ "AHN Global News". Allheadlinenews.com. http://www.allheadlinenews.com/articles/7007735487. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  29. ^ a b c Das Goswami, S. (1982). Srila Prabhupada-lilamrta, Vol 4: In Every Town and Village, Around the World, 1968–71. Los Angeles: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
  30. ^ Knot, Kim "Insider and Outsider Perceptions of Prabhupada" in ISKCON Communications Journal Vol. 5, No 1, June 1997: "In an evaluation of the nature of the guru, Larry Shinn, a scholar of religions, utilised Max Weber's analysis of charisma in order to understand Prabhupada and the issue of leadership in ISKCON. He noted that 'Prabhupada profited from two intertwined sources of authority' (1987:40), the traditional authority of the disciplic lineage, parampara, inherited from his own guru, and his own charismatic authority, derived from his spiritual attainment and presence...(49) Shinn offered an analysis based on sociological rather than spiritual (Vaishnava) authority in order to make sense of the role of guru in ISKCON and the unique qualities of Prabhupada." See also Larry D. Shinn (1987), The Dark Lord: Cult Images and the Hare Krishnas in America. Philadelphia: The Westview Press.available online
  31. ^ Cole, Richard; Dwyer, Graham (2007). The Hare Krishna Movement: Forty Years of Chant and Change. London: I. B. Tauris. pp. 181–183; p.30. ISBN 1-84511-407-8. "Out of some of his most committed disciples, Srila Prabhupada created ISKCON's international Governing Body Commission (GBC)"
  32. ^ Maria Ekstrand; Bryant, Edwin H. (2004). The Hare Krishna movement: the postcharismatic fate of a religious transplant. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 205. ISBN 0-231-12256-X. A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Letter of 28 July 1970. "As we have increased our volume of activities, now I think a Governing Body Commission (hereinafter referred to as the G.B.C.) should be established. I am getting old, 75 years old, therefore at any time I may be out of the scene, therefore I think it is necessary to give instruction to my disciples how they shall manage the whole institution. They are already managing individual centers represented by one president, one secretary and one treasurer, and in my opinion they are doing nice. But we want still more improvement in the standard of Temple management, propaganda for Krishna consciousness, distribution of books and literatures, opening of new centers and educating devotees to the right standard."
  33. ^ AC Bhaktivedanta Swami (1977). Room conversation October 18, 1977. Vrindavana, India: Bhaktivedanta Archives. ""Prabhupāda: ...One Bengali gentleman has come from New York? Tamāla Kṛṣṇa: Yes. Mr. Sukamal Roy Chowdury. Prabhupāda: So I have deputed some of you to initiate. Hm? Tamāla Kṛṣṇa: Yes. Actually... Yes, Śrīla Prabhupāda. Prabhupāda: So I think Jayapatākā can do that if he likes. I have already deputed. Tell him. Tamāla Kṛṣṇa: Yes. Prabhupāda: So, deputies, Jayapatākā's name was there? Bhagavān: It is already on there, Śrīla Prabhupāda. His name was on that list. Prabhupāda: So I depute him to do this at Māyāpura, and you may go with him. I stop for the time being. Is that all right? Tamāla Kṛṣṇa: Stopped doing what, Śrīla Prabhupāda? Prabhupāda: This initiation. I have deputed the, my disciples. Is it clear or not? Girirāja: It's clear.""
  34. ^ Smith, Huston; Harry Oldmeadow (2004). Journeys East: 20th century Western encounters with Eastern religious traditions. Bloomington, Ind: World Wisdom. p. 272. ISBN 0-941532-57-7. "Before his death Prabhupada appointed eleven American devotees as gurus."
  35. ^ Rochford, E. Burke (1985). Hare Krishna in America. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press. p. 222. ISBN 0-8135-1114-3. "In the months preceding his death Srila Prabhupada appointed eleven of his closest disciples to act as initiating gurus for ISKCON"
  36. ^ Ron Rhodes (2001). Challenge of the Cults and New Religions. Zondervan. p. 179. ISBN 0-310-23217-1. ""Before Prabhupada died in 1977, he selected senior devotees who would continue to direct the organization.""
  37. ^ Rodney Stark (1985). Religious movements. Paragon House Publishers. p. 100. ISBN 0-913757-43-8. "Satsvarupa dasa Goswami, one of the eleven initiating gurus Bhaktivedanta appointed to succeed him..."
  38. ^ S.G.Goswami. "sdgonline.org". sdgonline.org. http://www.sdgonline.org/. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  39. ^ Jayapataka Swami
  40. ^ "Tamal Krishna Goswami homepage". Goswami.com. http://www.goswami.com/. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  41. ^ Flood, G.D. (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. p. 272. ISBN 0-521-43878-0. "Upon demise of Prabhupada eleven Western Gurus were selected as spiritual heads of the Hare Krsna movement, but many problems followed from their appointment and the movement had since veered away from investing absolute authority in a few, fallible, human teachers."
  42. ^ The Perils of Succession: Heresies of Authority and Continuity In the Hare Krishna Movement by Tamal Krishna Goswami
  43. ^ "Srila Prabhupada Disciple Database". Prabhupada.com. http://www.prabhupada.com/OLD-site/disciple.php. Retrieved 2010-06-12.
  44. ^ a b c d The Perils of Succession: Heresies of Authority and Continuity In the Hare Krishna Movement (Part 2) by Tamala Krishna Goswami
  45. ^ Swami, Jayadvaita. "Origin of the Jiva from". jswami.info. http://www.jswami.info/jiva. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  46. ^ See the brief essay From Master to Disciple by Jayadvaita Swami.
  47. ^ "IRM article 'The Final Order'". Iskconirm.com. http://www.iskconirm.com/docs/webpages/tfo.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  48. ^ Iskcon.com, The Perils of Succession: Heresies of Authority and Continuity In the Hare Krishna Movement, Part 2 by Tamal Krishna Goswami.
  49. ^ The Perils of Succession: Heresies of Authority and Continuity In the Hare Krishna Movement
  50. ^ Court Case details[dead link]
  51. ^ AP (1983-06-18). ""Krishna Group Loses Brainwashing Lawsuit", New York Times, June 18, 1983". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9402E0DE123BF93BA25755C0A965948260. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  52. ^ Knott, K. (2000). "In Every Town and Village: Adaptive Strategies in the Communication of Krishna Consciousness in the UK, the First Thirty Years". Social Compass 47 (2): 153. doi:10.1177/003776800047002002.
  53. ^ Larry Shinn. The Maturation of the Hare Krishnas in America. http://content.iskcon.com/icj/2_1/shinn.html. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
  54. ^ Berg, T.V.; Kniss, F. (2008). "ISKCON AND IMMIGRANTS: The Rise, Decline, and Rise Again of a New Religious Movement". Sociological Quarterly 49 (1): 79–104. doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.2007.00107.x.
  55. ^ Klostermaier 2000, IntroKlostermaier, Klaus K. (2000). Hinduism: A Short History. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1-85168-213-9
  56. ^ Rochford & 2007 249
  57. ^ "Child Abuse in the Hare Krishna Movement: 1971–1986". Iskcon.com. 1998-06-01. http://content.iskcon.com/icj/6_1/6_1rochford.html. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  58. ^ "an article in ISKCON Communications Journal". Iskcon.com. 1998-06-01. http://content.iskcon.com/icj/6_1/. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  59. ^ Press Release: Courts Confirm Hare Krishna Chapter 11 Reorganization – Religious Society Apologizes to Victims of Child Abuse.
  60. ^ "Child Protection Office". Child Protection Office. 2008-01-26. http://www.childprotectionoffice.org/teams.html. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  61. ^ "Iskconresolve.com". Iskconresolve.com. http://www.iskconresolve.com. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  62. ^ "Ex-Hare Krishna leader gets 30 years for fraud". Chicago Tribune. Jun 21, 1991. p. 21. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/24745467.html?dids=24745467:24745467&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Jun+21%2C+1991&author=&pub=Chicago+Tribune+(pre-1997+Fulltext)&desc=Ex-Hare+Krishna+leader+gets+30+years+for+fraud&pqatl=google.
  63. ^ Row over ISKCON rath yatra (2007-12-24). "NDTV". NDTV. http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20070036757&ch=12/24/2007%209:51:00%20AM. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  64. ^ "TOI". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 2007-12-20. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/Puri_priests_demand_ban_on_entry_of_ISKCON_monks/articleshow/2637652.cms. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  65. ^ Indiatimes.com
  66. ^ Religioscope – JFM Recherches et Analyses. "Iskcon devotees create flutter at Puri temple". Religion.info. http://religion.info/english/articles/article_347.shtml. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  67. ^ "Content not available – omg! news on Yahoo!". Omg.yahoo.com. http://omg.yahoo.com/news/george-harrison-gets-hollywood-walk-of-fame-star/21279. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  68. ^ "Pretenders – Boots Of Chinese Plastic Lyrics". Metrolyrics.com. http://www.metrolyrics.com/boots-of-chinese-plastic-lyrics-pretenders.html. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  69. ^ Radha Krsna Temple.

[edit] References

[edit] External links

No comments:

Post a Comment