Thursday, 1 November 2012

Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar

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Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar

Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar (aka Shri Shri Anandamurti)
Born(1921-05-21)21 May 1921
Jamalpur, Bihar, British India
Died21 October 1990(1990-10-21) (aged 69)
Kolkata, West Bengal, India
NationalityIndian
EthnicityBengali
InfluencedRavi Batra
Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar (21 May 1921 – 21 October 1990), also known by his spiritual name, Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (Ánandamúrti, as he was called by his early disciples, is a sanscrit word meaning "Bliss personified"), was an Indian philosopher, author, social revolutionary, poet, composer and linguist. Sarkar was the founder of Ananda Marga (the Path of Bliss), a spiritual and social organization that offers instruction in meditation, yoga and other self-development practices on a non-commercial basis, as well as a variety of social programs such as preschools in disadvantaged areas, disaster relief teams, and other activities. Sarkar was affectionately referred to as Baba (Sanskrit, Punjabi, Hindi and Marathi: बाबा; father; grandfather; wise old man; sir,[1] or 'the dear one') by his disciples. He was a prolific author and produced an extensive body of works that includes theories aimed at increasing human welfare such as the Law of Social Cycle, the progressive utilization theory, the theory of microvitum as well as the philosophy of Neohumanism. His organization, Ananda Marga, began in India in 1955 and by the mid 1970s had become a worldwide operation that continued after his death in 1990 and is still active today. His system of spiritual practice has been described as a practical synthesis of Vedic and Tantric philosophies.[2]
Sarkar is today considered by many as one of the most prominent philosophers of India. As the Norwegian sociologist Johan Galtung, winner of Right Livelihood Award and founder of International Peace Research Institute in Oslo, Norway, said: "Sarkar will probably stand out as one of the truly great in this century, so much deeper and more imaginative than most... He is an intellectual giant of our times.".[3] Or, to quote the words of the Former President of India, Giani Zail Singh: "Sarkar was one of the greatest modern philosophers of India.".[4] Leonardo Boff, Brazilian founder of Liberation Theology also said: "Sarkar, who did more than thirty years of studies and practical concrete work with the poor population of India, is very important for all who yearn for a liberation which starts from economics and opens to a totality of personal and social human existence..."[4]

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[edit] Early life

Sarkar's maternal uncle Subhas Chandra Bose brother of Sarat Chandra Bose (aka Sarat Chandra "Basu").
Sarkar was born during the full moon of the Indian month of Vaeshakh (Buddha Purnima), on 21 May 1921 (at 6:07 in the morning) from Lakshmi Narayan Sarkar (who died on 1936 in Jamalpur, Bihar, British Raj) and Abharani Sarkar, in the small town of Jamalpur, Bihar, India.[5] Sarkar was the fourth child in a family of eight children. The first was a sister, Hirprabha, who was born on 1917 and died on 1990 (six months after Sarkar's departure). The next two were a sister, Kanakprabha, who died at the age of two and half of smallpox, and a boy who died at birth. Prabhat Ranjan was the fourth and after him came Shrii Sudhangshu Ranjan. His younger sister, Bijaliprabha, died at the young age of 18. The two younger brothers are Shrii Himanshu-Rajan and Shrii Manas-Ranjan. The only surviving members of the P. R. Sarkar family are the three brothers Shrii Sudhangshu Ranjan, Himanshu-Rajan and Manas-Ranjan.[6]
Sarkar was known as an exceptionally bright child[7] in his youth, practicing meditation by himself at an early age and displaying great knowledge of various languages and various topics; knowledge which was reportedly not gained in school, reading books, nor listening to teachers or any other outer source.
In 1939 Sarkar left Jamalpur for Kolkata to attend Vidyasagar College[8] of the University of Calcutta. During his time in Kolkata, he stayed at the house of his maternal uncle, Sarat Chandra Bose (aka Sarat Chandra "Basu")[9]. Sarat Chandra's brother was the famous Indian social activist Subhash Chandra Bose, one of the most prominent leaders in the Indian independence movement (a legendary figure in India today). He was the founder of the Indian National Army an Indian national force against the British colonizers (and therefore also against the allied Western powers) during World War II which helped India to finally achieve its independence in 1947. These two figures were the greatest leaders of the movement to gain independence from England. Another renowned personality with whom Sarkar had a close relationship[clarification needed (what was the relationship?)] was the revolutionary sociologist M.N. Roy (Manabendra Nath Roy). Over a period of several years, both Subhash Chandra Bose and M.N. Roy frequently met Sarkar.[10]
In 1939 on 2 August (at 8:30 P.M., on the full moon day of Shravani[11] Purnima[12]), Sarkar initiated with Tantrikii Diiksa or "Tantric initiation" a notorious criminal by the name of Kalicharan Bandyopadhyay (after aka Kalikananda Avadhuta) into meditation at Kashi Mitra Gh’at on the bank of the river Bhagirathi in Kalikata (Kolkata), West Bengal, India and helped to reform his life. This was the start of Sarkar's spiritual teaching at the early age of 18 and many unknown Sadhakas ("spiritual aspirants") were initiated from then up to 1955.
Sarkar had to quit his studies in order to support his family after the death of his father, and from 1941 until the early 1950s, Sarkar worked as an accountant at the Indian railways headquarters in Jamalpur, Bihar, India for the next twenty-five years of his life. He taught the techniques of ancient tantra[13] meditation to a select number of his colleagues and gradually more and more people were drawn to the spiritual practices he taught.

[edit] Ananda Marga

Historical photo representing a group of Ananda Marga followers in Triuggio (Monza, Italy) on July 1977 during an international meeting.
In 1955, at the behest of his followers, Sarkar founded Ánanda Márga ("The Path of Bliss" in Sanskrit),[14] a socio-spiritual movement with a two-part mission that Sarkar stated as "self-realization and service to all". His system of spiritual practice has been described as a practical synthesis of Vedic and Tantric philosophies.[2] Sarkar's ideas are collected in the series of books called “Subháśita Samgraha”, which form part of the philosophical scriptures of Ánanda Márga ideology. The Subhásita Samgraha ("Collected Discourses") series assembles all the Dharma Mahácakra (DMC)[15] discourses given by the author as Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti. The books expound in simple, lucid and rational ways, many important aspects of the Divine Nature of human beings, or Bhágavata Dharma in Sanskrit. While interpreting the various spiritual ideas, he has discussed and quoted relevant portions from other scriptures such as the Rámáyańa, the Mahábhárata, the Bhagavad Gita, the Quran, Tantric, Yogic, and Vedantic literature, etc. to illustrate various aspects of Dharma and philosophy.[16] Sarkar's ideas are steeped in the ancient spiritual tradition of humanity, considerably developed in India, yet revitalized by him with new meaning and universal approach.
Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti (meaning "Bliss personified") as he was called by his early disciples oversaw the formation of an order of monks and nuns who came forward to dedicate their lives to the practice of meditation and service and who were able to teach the same to others across India and abroad. P. R. Sarkar aka Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti continued his job in Jamalpur, Bihar, India to support his family as the main breadwinner after his father's demise until 1966, when he finally assumed the role of president of Ananda Marga's organizations full-time. During the latter part of his life his main residence was in Lake Gardens in Kolkata, West Bengal. He also spent much time, especially early on, in the all-round development community he founded based on his PROUT socio-economic theory at Ananda Nagar, partly in Purulia district in rural West Bengal.
Ánanda Márga opened regional offices in various countries, including the USA in 1969, and by 1973 had established approximately 100 local centers teaching yogic and social philosophies, with several thousand members, some living communally in the ashrams.[17][18]

[edit] Spiritual philosophy

Sarkar's teachings on spiritual philosophy have been universal in approach, yet particularly influencing modern ascetic movements in Hindu India due to the former's rejection of superstitions, dogmas and irrational beliefs. His system of spiritual practice has been innovative but also described as a practical synthesis of Vedic and Tantric philosophies.[2] Sarkar's concept of karma samnyasa refers to the principle that a yogi becomes a person with all-round development and a balanced mind, that he called a sadvipra; and that this is accomplished by someone who remains fixed on the "supreme" consciousness through transformative personal practices and engaging in the politics of social liberation as a form of service work.[19]
Sarkar describes the universe as a result of macropsychic conation — the entire universe exists within the cosmic mind, which itself is the first expression of consciousness coming under the bondage of its own nature. With the evolution of unit beings, individual life, the extroversial projection of the "Cosmic Mind" starts the return journey in an always unique and colorful fashion. No two entities of this universe are the same, and yet all have the same goal to merge once more with their source, the infinite Cosmic consciousness. As such, the cosmological flow is from limitless consciousness to limited consciousness and back to limitless consciousness.
  • Realms of the Mind: according to Sarkar's philosophy the human mind is composed of five layers called Kosas:[21] 1)Annamaya Kosa ("food layer") or "Crude Mind": is the physical or crudest layer.[22] 2)Manomaya Kosa ("layer of thinking") or "Subtle Mind": is the layer of thought and memory.[23] 3)Atimanasa Kosa or "Supramental Mind": is the intuitive layer.[24] 4)Vijinanamaya Kosa ("layer of the special knowledge") or "Subliminal Mind": is the layer of conscience or discrimination (viveka) and vaeragya (non-attachment).[25] 5)Hiranyamaya Kosa ("golden level") or "Subtle Causal Mind": is the subtlest layer. Here the awareness of mind is very close to the direct experience of "Supreme Consciousness".[26]
  • Biopsychology: Sarkar's "Biopsycology" explains how the traditional tantric science of chakras ("wheels") with their subtle energies are related with the body through nerve plexi[27] as physiologic counterparts, influencing the associated endocrine glands with the neuroendocrine system and the psychic part of the body. The philosophy of Ananda Marga consider the human body as composed of the same five fundamental factors as the rest of the universe as explained in P.R. Sarkar's theory of Brahmachakra.[28] Every factor is distributed throughout the body, but is controlled by a controlling nucleus, or cakra.[29] Mind's propensities (vrttis) associated with each cakra affect the glands and the hormones secreted from those glands (hence the emotions, physical behaviour and functioning of the various body systems). But the glands and the hormones they secrete may also affect the mind[30] in a chain of feedbacks.
  • Microvita theory: "Microvita" is plural for "Micro-vitum" and literally means "micro-life". The concept was first introduced by P.R. Sarkar on 1986 through a series of lectures. According to this intuitional theory microvita are entities which come within the realms both of physicality of psychic expression. They are smaller and subtler than physical atoms and subatomic particles, and in the psychic realm they may be subtler than mind–stuff. The author predicts that they will soon be recognized by conventional science.[31]
In Sarkar's microvita theory microvita seems to be the first expressions of life. However, this concept, still in its infancy, conceives of various types of microvita, both positive and negative, at varying degrees of evolutionary existence.

[edit] Sadhana

Sarkar offers the path of Sadhana to his followers. He describes sadhana as "the transformation of fearful love into fearless love".[32] This meditation (sadhana) for complete merger, for unification, starts with fearful love. He recommends to his disciples the practice of collective meditation at least once a week. These meetings called Dharma Chakras are preceded by the singing of few Prabhat Samgiita (or "Songs of the New Dawn", composed by P. R. Sarkar himself) followed by Baba Nam Kevalam kiirtan, then the mantra called About this sound Samgacchadvam. At the end of the collective meditation the mantra About this sound Nityam Shuddham, then the spiritual gathering will end with the About this sound Guru Puja mantra.

[edit] Social and political philosophy

[edit] Social cycle theory

The concept of Varna describes four main socio-psychological types, whereby human psychological and physical endowment and social motivations are expressed: the Vipra (intellectual), Kshatriya (warrior), Vaishya (acquisitor) and Shudra (laborer). Varna, in Sarkar's perspective, however is more than just a psychological trait but rather an archetype, approximately to Michel Foucault's notion of epistemes, which are broader frameworks of knowledge defining what is true and real.[33]
Sarkar's "Law of Social Cycle" applies these traits in a theory of historical evolution, where ages rise and fall in terms of ruling elites representing one of the above mentioned traits. This "law" possibly connects to the earlier cyclical historical ideas of Sri Aurobindo, with a focus on the psychology of human development, as well as Ibn Khaldun, among other macrohistorians ideas about cycles. However, along with a cyclical dimension — the rise and fall of ages — Sarkar's theory exhibits a correspondent linear dimension, in that economic and technological "progress" are considered critical in terms of meeting the changing material conditions of life. Ultimately, for Sarkar, true progress has to prioritize development in the spiritual dimension.
Spirituality for Sarkar is defined as the individual realizing the "true self". In addition to yogic meditational practices and purity of thought and deed, Sarkar attached great importance to selfless social service as a means of liberation. Sarkar considered it necessary for the social arrangements to support the inner development of human beings and rejected both capitalism and communism as appropriate social structures for humanity to move forward to the golden age of a balanced way of life sustaining all-round progress. A serious problem with capitalism was according to Sarkar the concentration of wealth in a few hands and stoppages in the rolling of money which he considered root causes of recessions, even depressions.[34] A spiritual way of life, however, would in no way be divorced from creating structures that help meet the basic, though ever changing, needs — food, housing, clothing, health and education.
Sarkar claims to have developed both Ánanda Márga and the Progressive Utilization Theory as practical means to encourage harmony and cooperation in order to help society escape this proposed cycle. Sarkar argues that once the social cycle is understood and sadvipras[35] evolved, then the periods of exploitation can be largely reduced, if not eliminated. With leadership that is representative of all aspects of the varnas — that is, the leader engaged in service, who is courageous, who uses the intellect for the benefits of others, and who has innovative/entrepreneurial skills — the cycle can become an upward spiral.[36]

[edit] PROUT: progressive utilization theory

The Progressive utilization theory| ("progressive utilization theory") is a socio-economic theory first mentioned in 1959 by Sarkar[37] in his speech "The Cosmic Brotherood".[38] To popularize and implement PROUT, Shrii Sarkar established the organization, "Proutist Universal", which primarily consists of five federations (students, intellectuals, farmers, labor, and youth). The proutist economy[39] as described by Sarkar is a form of cooperative and decentralized economy that looks more at the collective welfare rather than to profit, without neglecting the promotion of the individual merits of each. "Progressive utilization" stands for the optimization and maximum utilization of natural, industrial and human resources on a sustainable basis for the entire ecosystem. This theory, that claims to overcome the limitations of both capitalism and communism with his Law of Social Cycle founded on Sarkar's "Social Cycle Theory", is not concerned solely with economics. In 1968, Sarkar founded the organization "Proutist Block of India" (PBI), to further the ideals of his theory through political and social action.[40] The PBI was soon superseded by "Proutist Universal" (PU). According to its proponents PROUT encompasses the whole of individual and collective existence - physical, educational, social, political, mental, cultural and spiritual - not just for human beings but for all beings.

[edit] Neohumanism

Ananda Marga (AMURTEL) Gradinita Rasarit ("Sunrise nursery school") in Bucarest (Romania). Hundreds of schools around the world are based on Sarkar's educational and neohumanistic methods.
Ananda Marga (AMURTEL) Children's and Mother's Home Baan Unrak ("House of Joy") in Sangkhlaburi, Thailand (North-West of Kanchanaburi Province close to the border with Myanmar). A house for the welfare of children and women based on Sarkar's philosophy.
In 1982, Sarkar extended his writings on the subject of human society with the introduction of his new theory of "Neohumanism".[41] If humanism tends to contemplate only humans in a human-centric view, Neohumanism, according to Sarkar's theory, is instead the elevation of humanism to universalism.[42] This is because, as described in the theory of Brahmachakra, all existing things are expressions of the same Supreme Consciousness. Accordingly, Neohumanism gives preference to existential value over utility value for all living beings. Sarkar's Neohumanism places great emphasis on rationality and encourages what he calls a protospiritual mentality.[43] According to Sarkar, rationality helps to give rise to devotion, which he consider to be the "highest and most valuable treasure of humanity"[44]. In Sarkar's view, Neohumanism leads to the liberation of human intellect from the constraints of imposed dogma and psychic complexes helping to bridge the gap between the inner and outer worlds.[45] Neohumanism is both a reactive and a proactive philosophy. It promotes social activism in the form of identifying and exposing harmful influences. And it promotes personal development through appropriate physical, mental, and spiritual discipline.

[edit] Education

According to P. R. Sarkar "Education is for Liberation." Education means the simultaneous development in the physical, mental and spiritual realms of human existence. By this, dormant human potentialities will be awakened and put to proper use. As Sarkar made clear in his teachings, real education leads to a pervasive sense of love and compassion for all creation. in the Ananda Marga's education system, special emphasis is given to moral education and the inculcation of idealism together with a proper psycho-pedagogical approach and an happy blending of occidental extroversial science and oriental introversial philosophy.[46]

[edit] Sarkar's persecution: unjust detention and final release

Shrii Shrii Anandamurti's liberation: an historical photo (taken in Cison di Valmarino (Treviso, Italy) on July 1978) representing an international group of Ananda Marga followers singing a Kirtan in occasion of Sarkar's release.
From Ananda Marga’s inception, the movement stood for universalism and opposition to irrational practices such as casteism. Ananda Marga had to face opposition from conservative Hindu circles and as well the Communist movement in West Bengal. Sarkar's PROUT theory, although first propounded in 1959, began to popularize in the mid-1960s.
In 1971, some of Ananda Marga's members were attacked and killed, and Sarkar was arrested and imprisoned pending trial for allegedly conspiring to their murder.[47] Kept in jail for several years under poor conditions, Sarkar maintained his innocence all the while. His followers, meanwhile, claimed that he was only imprisoned for his spiritual and social teachings.
Under a declared opposition from the Indian government of Indira Gandhi, Sarkar received life sentence (Barker 1989: 168), which was overturned in a retrial in 1978. From the beginning of his imprisonment, Sarkar complained of the alleged torture of several of his monks. Sarkar claimed that on 12 February 1973 he was poisoned while in Bankipur Central Jail, Patna.[48][49] His demand for a judicial investigation in his poisoning was, however, not granted by the authorities and consequently he started a long protest fast 1 April 1973 on a daily glass of yoghurt water until his ultimate release, five years and four months later.[50]
On 4 July, after the end of the emergency period in India he was granted a retrial by the new Government. Sarkar's conviction was overturned on appeal and he was exonerated of all charges.[51] He was found innocent on all counts. It was only when he was released on 3 August 1978, that Sarkar broke his fast.

[edit] Later part of Sarkar's life

During Sarkar's imprisonment, later shown to be unjust by the courts overturning his conviction, his organisation spread all over the world carrying Sarkar's message of "self-realization and service."
Subsequent to his release from prison, Sarkar was in poor health after his fast for 5½ years, but remained active in promoting his mission, giving discourses on a wide range of topics including spiritual and social philosophy, philology, agriculture, Neohumanism, Microvita, etc. He composed 5018 songs he described as a new school of music called Prabhata Samgiita.
In late 1978 and 1979, he travelled on a world tour to meet disciples in various countries around the world, including Switzerland, Germany, France, Scandinavia, the Middle East, Thailand, Taiwan, Jamaica and Venezuela. He was banned from entering the USA by the State Department, as a result of his problems with the government of India, and instead met his American disciples in Jamaica in 1979.[52]
Just before he died on 21 October 1990, he founded Ananda Marga Gurukula (7 September 1990) - an educational network to preserve and develop his legacy through research, teaching and service. P.R.Sarkar laid the foundations of a university at Anandanagar in West Bengal, India and as its founding President he also provided many guidelines for the remoulding of educational systems in the world.[citation needed]

[edit] Works

Although Sarkar spent only seventeen years of his life working full-time for his organizations (1966–1971 & 1978–1990), he left behind a vast legacy, including over 250 books written on a wide variety of topics. Many of this books are compilation or collections of speeches given by the author during spiritual or social meetings.
He is primarily known as the spiritual teacher behind Ananda Marga, but Sarkar wrote over 1500 pages on his economic Progressive Utilization Theory (PROUT), with several thousand more pages dedicated to linguistics and the study of languages; Sarkar's writings on linguistics included among other works, Shabda Cayanika ("A Collection of Words"), an unfinished, twenty-six volume dictated encyclopedia on the Bengali language. Beyond this he wrote books on sociology, agriculture, history, literature, education, medicine, cosmology, and philosophy, also notably founding the philosophy of Neohumanism in 1982 and the Theory of Microvita in 1986.
On 1982 Sarkar started composing songs. In eight years, until the date of his death, He completed the composition of 5018 songs in multiple languages. This vast collection of songs is called Prabhat Samgiita ("Songs of the New Dawn").

[edit] Prabhata Samgiita

Prabháta Saḿgiita is a new trend in the world of music. The compositions are known as "Songs of the New Dawn". In Sanskrit, Prabháta means "dawn", and Saḿgiitaa means "the totality of song, instrumental play, and dance".
It came into being when Prabhát Ranjan Sarkar composed his first song at Deoghar, India on 14 September 1982. Over the span of eight years, the Prabháta Saḿgiita grew rich in content, style, and variety. On 20 October 1990, the day before Sarkar's departure, the number of Prabháta Saḿgiita stood at a staggering 5018.
In Prabháta Saḿgiita one will find a variety of temperaments, such as devotional songs, songs of mystical love, songs of social consciousness and ecology, Marching songs, songs depicting the various stages, feelings and experiences in spiritual meditation, songs about seasons, songs about Krishna and Shiva, and many more. The composer used a variety of forms and styles with elements spanning from classical to folk music. Most of the songs of Prabháta Saḿgiita were composed in Bengali; however, over forty songs were composed in other languages that include: English, Sanskrit, Hindi, Urdu, Magaht, Maethili and Angika.
Prabháta Saḿgiita is now a full-fledged school of music with its own distinct style. It has heralded a new genre in the realm of music and culture and tries to inspire its singers and listeners to shake off depression and melancholy generating vitality for life. Rhythm, tempo and melody, are the hallmarks of these songs together with its strong spiritual ideation, and optimism.

[edit] Literary and philosophical production

Sarkar's literary production is very wide. Between 1955 and 1990 the founder of AMPS wrote a total of 261 books in English, Bengali and Hindi. He wrote in the name Shrii Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar when treating sociology, economics, philology and various other subjects, included children's tales; and in the name Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti when focusing on spiritual topics. Many of his books he gave as dictations; others were compiled from his discourses, some of them in small inspirational pocket-books.[53]

[edit] Linguistic work

Sarkar also advocated against any language discrimination, whether declaring languages as dialects for serving political or nationalistic ends or denying their rights, such as oppressing its field of expression in media, education, courts and so. He advocated the rights of Maithili, Bhojpuri and some others.[54][55]
He wrote many books and volumes of etymological encyclopedias focusing on phonetics, morphology, dialectology, acoustics, syntax, etymology, grammar and semantics. He mainly deals with the Sanskrit and Bengali languages and also discusses English, French, Persian, Hindi, Urdu, German, Portuguese, Latin and others.[56][57][58] Additionally, he had a strong command of Sanskrit and coined thousands of Sanskrit-derived words in various Indian languages, mainly Bengali.[59]
His linguistic works include:
  • Varna Vijinana — Science of Letters[60]
  • Sarkar's English Grammar
  • Varna Vicitra — Various Uses of Letters (8 volumes)
  • Shabda Cayanika — A Collection of Words (26 volumes)
[edit] Sarkar's definition of language
According to Sarkar, there are two forms of language: the language of the inner world or voice, which is only one and indivisible; and the outer manifestation of the former, which is diverse. The former being rather a psychological concept, Sarkar focuses mainly on the latter one.[61]
He says:[61]
...In that fluidal flow of cognition, bubbles of ideas are created...when these bubbles touch the `unit I feeling', then unit ideas are created...When these ideas concern the unit, the unit `I' tries to express them through its own psycho-physical structure. It endeavours to express its unit desires and longings according to the capacity of the vocal chords and its hormone secretions. These reflections or refractions of ideas are expressed either within or without....These expressions within and without are collectively called language.
His definition of language can be to some degree compared to Jerry Fodor's extreme innatist theory or to Naom Chomsky's Universal grammar.
[edit] Sarkar's criteria for distinguishing languages and dialects
There are no universally accepted criteria for distinguishing languages from dialects: cf. Mutual intelligibility, Ausbausprache, Abstandsprache and Dachsprache, Variety (linguistics), A language is a dialect with an army and navy.
Sarkar, approaching the question of "language or dialect", enunciated eight main criteria for a language to be called a "language", and the rest "dialects". He considered these criteria to be strictly linguistic rather than political or cultural.
"Every language has its own special characteristics. It is these characteristics that set one language apart from another."[60]
According to Sarkar, no language or dialect should be subject to political or cultural exploitation, rather all languages, language varieties and dialects should be given full scope of expression in every arena of life. Their nomenclature (language, dialect, variant etc.) should be a hundred percent scientific, taking into consideration only linguistics, sociology and literature.[62]
In Varna Vijinana, he lays out eight criteria for a language:[60][63]
  1. Own verb endings (or own conjugation)
  2. Own case endings (or own declination)
  3. Own pronouns
  4. Own vocabulary
  5. Own oral or written literature (does not matter whether classical or folk)
  6. Own style of intonation
  7. Own acoustic notes ("psycho-acoustic and inferential acoustic")
  8. Own syntax
The first book of Sarkar was Ananda Marga Elementary Philosophy.[64] It was originally published in Bengali in the year 1955 (the same year the book was translated in Hindi and later on published in English). This book continues to hold its place as an introduction to the entire AMPS philosophy. In the same year Sarkar's Problems of the Day[65] was published. In the book the author explains key concepts of his ideas: "We are all citizens of this universe. The universe is the thought-projection of the Macrocosmic Mind, and it is in the extroversial and introversial phases of the Cosmic imaginative flow that the creation, preservation and destruction of all entities continues." "Parama Purusa (Supreme Consciouness) is our Father, Parama Prakrti (Supreme Operative Principle) is our Mother, and the Universe is our homeland". Another important book in three volumes is Ananda Marga Caryácarya,[66] published for the first time in 1956. This is the social treatise (samája shástra) of Ananda Marga. These three volumes set out both the organization and the cultural basis of the Ananda Marga movement. Part 1 describes AMPS governing boards and committees, and guidelines for social functions. Part 2 gives many guidelines for conduct in a progressive society i.e., a society of individuals moving towards the Supreme. Part 3 contains all the dos and don'ts related to physical health that must be followed for progress in mental and spiritual sádhaná.[67]
The fourth book dictated on 1957 from Sarkar as Anandamurti was A Guide to Human Conduct.[68] Herein the author explains the cardinal principles of morality together with the ancient teachings of self– control and selfless conduct, and at the same time places those principles on a clear scientific basis. On his (later expanded) volume Yogic Treatment and Natural Remedies,[69] 1958, Sarkar gives practical advices on Natural Remedies using yogic exercise, water, diet, herbal medicines, sunlight and air. In his sixth book Idea and Ideology,[70] a collection of speeches delivered to higher Tattvika trainees from 27 May 1959 to 5 June 1959, Sarkar methodically explains, in a careful sequence, spiritual and social practices. Here is described for the first time a socio-economic theory which Sarkar called "Progressive Utilization Theory", known by the acronym Prout. It concludes by using the spiritual vantage that has been gained to focus on the social problems of the earth.
On Ánanda Sútram,[71] 1961, Anandamurti condensed in a few strokes all his spiritual and social Philosophy. Ánanda Sútram means "aphorisms leading to ánanda, divine bliss. In the traditions of sutra literature the sútra form has been valued over the centuries as a powerful tool for communicating a deep philosophy in a condensed way. The eighty–five sútras of this book serve, with breathtaking conciseness, as a framework for the entire Ananda Marga ideology.
A large part of Sarkar's ideas are collected in the series of books called Subháśita Samgraha, which form part of the philosophical scriptures of Ánanda Márga ideology. The Subhásita Samgraha ("Collected Discourses") series assembles all the Dharma Mahácakra (DMC)[72] discourses given by the author as Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti.

[edit] Historical and geological work

In many lectures P. R. Sarkar gave explanations and suggestions on archeology, geology and the history of civilization. A big part of this lectures are collected in many books.

[edit] Ráŕh

In the book Ráŕh: The Cradle of Civilization, originally published in Bengali in 1981, Sarkar spoke about Ráŕh. Ráŕh is the very oldest region that has remained above water of Gondwanaland (the name given by geologists to a super-continent as they consider it to have existed hundreds of millions, of years ago). According to Sarkar, the tantric tradition of this very ancient land is even older than Shaeva Tantra, the Tantra of Shiva. As he said on the first chapter: "Ráŕh was not only the starting-point of civilization, Ráŕh represented the first-ever steps towards cultural progress... People of many lands started converging on Ráŕh... China called Ráŕh by the name of Láti Greece called it Gauṋgá Rid́i and the Aryans called it Rát́t́ha"[73].

[edit] Bibliography

This is an incomplete list of Sarkar/Anandamurti most important and better known literary works:

[edit] Gallery

[edit] Disciples

The yogi Kalikananda was Sarkar's first disciple. As a young man he had taken to criminality. After confronting Sarkar in a remote area with the aim to rob him he was instead attracted to the path of bliss by Sarkar.[74] Another disciple is Ravi Batra, an economic writer living in Dallas, Texas. In his works, Batra has relied heavily on Sarkar's Social Cycle Theory and PROUT, a theory of sustainable and equitable economics. Another noted disciple is futurist Sohail Inayatullah, who has become a major interpreter of Sarkar's work.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

[edit] Citations

  1. ^ Platts, John T. (John Thompson). A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English. London: W. H. Allen & Co., 1884.
  2. ^ a b c Ishwaran, Karigoudar (1999). Ascetic Culture: Renunciation and Worldly Engagement. Brill Publishers. p. 9. ISBN 90-04-11412-2.
  3. ^ The Story of Neohumanist Education.
  4. ^ a b P.R. Sarkar | PROUT Globe
  5. ^ Lakshmi Narayan Sarkar's family (P. R. Sarkar father) lived in Bamunpara (Brahmanpara), Burdwan District in West Bengal (the P. R. Sarkar's ancestral home was located in the village of Bamunpara (Brahmanpara) in Burdwan District, where his grandmother Binapani Sarkar lived). "Shrii Lakshmi Narayan passed his matriculation examination in the first division from Burdwan Municipal High School in the year 1908. Around that time, his father, Kunjabiharii Sarkar died during a business trip in Burma. As the eldest son, Lakshmi Narayan shouldered the responsibility for the family. With the help of a relative he secured a suitable job with the Railway office at Jamalpur. Many British indians were still at that time; his British Indian supervisors were satisfied with the work of diligent, honest Shrii Lakshmi Narayan and he was quikly promoted. In this way, Shrii Lakshmi Narayan and Smt. Abharani Sarkar, the parents of Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, settled in Jamalpur, Bihar state, India in 1915". (Taken from bhagavatadharma.com: P. R. Sarkar birth and childhood)
  6. ^ At 1 January 2011. See: P. R. Sarkar birth and childhood
  7. ^ "From adolescence P. R. Sarkar demonstrated skill in speaking languages such has Angika, Maethilii, Magahii, Nagpurii, Oriya, Chhattis-garii, Assamese and others too". (Taken from bhagavatadharma.com: P. R. Sarkar birth and childhood)
  8. ^ See the list of the Notable alumni of the Vidyasagar College.
  9. ^ As a sign of gratitude, on 1958 Sarkar dedicated to him his book "Yogic Treatments and Natural Remedies".
  10. ^ See also: Brief Biography of Shrii Shrii Anandamurti or P. R. Sarkar p.17.
  11. ^ Shravan is the fifth month of the Hindu year, beginning in late July and ending in the third week of August. It is the month of festivals and commemorate the precedence of the sacred over all aspects of life. It is the holiest month in the year and it includes celebrating Nag Panchami on the fifth day of the bright half of the month.
  12. ^ Shravani Purnima is the full moon in the sacred month of Shravan. On Shraavana Poornima Raksha Bandhan, the festival of brothers and sisters, is celebrated .
  13. ^ Shrii Shrii Anandamurti clearly explained in his books the meaning of Tantra: "What is Tantra? The process of transforming (latent divinity) into the Supreme Divinity is known as Tantra sadhana... The significance of the term tantra is 'liberation from bondage (the bondage of dullness or staticity)'. The letter ta is the seed (sound) of dulness. And the root verb trae suffixed by da becomes tra, which means 'that which liberates' - so the spiritual practice which liberates the aspirant from the dullness or animality of the static force and expands the aspirant's (spiritual) self is Tantra sadhana. So there cannot be any spiritual practice without Tantra. Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (Ac. Vijayananda Avt. Editor) (1994). Discourses on Tantra. 2. AMPS-Ananda Printers. "Tantra in itself is neither a religion nor an 'ism'. Tantra is a fundamental spiritual science. So wherever there is any spiritual practice it should be taken for granted that it stands on the Tantric cult. Where there is no spiritual practice, where people pray to God for the fulfillment of narrow worldly desires, where people’s only slogan is “Give us this and give us that” – only there do we find that Tantra is discouraged. So only those who do not understand Tantra, or even after understanding Tantra do not want to do any spiritual practice, oppose the cult of Tantra." Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (1959). Tantra and its Effect on Society. Ananda Marga Pubs.
  14. ^ Chryssides, George D. (1999). Exploring New Religions. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 370. ISBN 0-8264-5959-5.
  15. ^ Dharma Mahácakras: large spiritual congregations addressed by P. R. Sarkar as Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti, were held in cities and towns all over the world.
  16. ^ Spiritual Treatise, Ánanda Márga Philosophy in a Nutshell, 1970, Ranchi
  17. ^ Ng, Franklin (1995). The Asian American Encyclopedia. Marshall Cavendish. p. 669. ISBN 1-85435-677-1.
  18. ^ Miller, Timothy (1999). The 60's Communes: Hippies and Beyond. Syracuse University Press. p. 108. ISBN 0-8156-0601-X.
  19. ^ "Karma Samnyasa: Sarkar's Reconceptualization of Indian Asceticism". Journal of Asian and African Studies (SAGE Publications) 34 (1, 139–151 (1999)).
  20. ^ All these concepts are extensively explained on (Sarkar, P. R., 1961-2001). This book is a collection of lectures (later published as "Idea and Ideology") given by the author in 1959. Many concepts have been further explored in subsequent speeches.
  21. ^ The last three deeper layers are collectively called "Causal Mind". "Causal" signifies that these layers are in the most direct contact with the "Causal Consciousness" from which the mind has evolved and within which it exists. see Anandamarga.org
  22. ^ It's developed through diet and physical exercise. In Ananda Marga practice it is also developed through asanas, Tandava and Kaoshikii.
  23. ^ This Kosa gives experience of pleasure and pain. It is developed naturally through physical clash, and in Ananda Marga sadhana by pranayama with cosmic ideation.
  24. ^ This Kosa gives the capacity of intuitive dreams, clairvoyance, telepathy and creative insight. It is developed naturally through psychic clash, and in Ananda Marga sadhana by methods of pratyahara (withdrawal) such as shuddhis and Guru Puja.
  25. ^ This Kosa is developed naturally through psychic clash, and its development is accelerated by the process of dharana.
  26. ^ Here there is only the separation of a thin veil of ignorance. This Kosa is developed naturally through the attraction for the Great, and dhyana accelerates this process for sadhakas (spirituals aspirants).
  27. ^ Complexe networks of intersecting nerves.
  28. ^ The physical body is a part of Saincara, whereas the mind is a part of Pratisaincara.
  29. ^ The cakras are like substations of the mind – each controlling their own assigned area. And just as the mind functions directly through the brain, the cakras function through their own physical counterparts – the endocrine glands. The biopsychology of Ananda Marga expands with further explanations the concept of the seven basic chakras and in general, mainly considers: 1)The Muladhara Cakra: at the tip of the spine (controls the solid factor). 2)The Svadhisthana Cakra: at the level of the genitals (controls the liquid factor and is associated with the reproductive glands). 3)The Manipura Cakra: at the level of the navel (controls the luminous factor and is associated with Pancreas). 4)The Anahata Cakra: at the center of the chest (controls the aerial factor and is associated with Thymus). 5)The Vishuddha Cakra: at the throat (controls the ethereal factor and is associated with the Thyroid gland). 6)The Ajina Cakra: between the eyebrows (associated with the Pituitary gland). 7)The Sahasrara Cakra: at the crown of the head (associated with the Pineal gland).
  30. ^ For more details see Ananda Marga.org
  31. ^ Sarkar, P. R., 1988-1991.
  32. ^ Subháśita Samgraha-18; Discourse title: Brahma Cakra, Salem, Madras, D.M.C. (Dharma Mahá Cakra: large spiritual congregations addressed by P. R. Sarkar as Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti) 9-12-64.
  33. ^ Johan Galtung and Sohail Inayatullah, eds., Macrohistory and Macrohistorians. Wesport, Ct, Praeger, 1997
  34. ^ A Second Great Depression. A story on Sarkars' ideas in the works of his disciple, Dr. Ravi Batra
  35. ^ "The Place of Sadvipras in the Social Cycle". http://www.worldproutassembly.org/archives/2005/03/sadvipras.html. Retrieved 17 May 2009.
  36. ^ Sohail Inayatullah, Sarkar's spiritual-dialectics: an unconventional view of the future. Futures, February 1988, 54-65
  37. ^ Craig, Edward, ed. (1998). Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Sociology of knowledge to Zaroastrianism. Routledge (Taylor & Francis). ISBN 0-415-16916-X.
  38. ^ Later published in Sarkar, P. R. (1961-2001) p. 89-97.
  39. ^ Based on five fundamental principles (all of which is found in the fifth chapter of Ananda Sutram, Shrii Sarkar's authoritative philosophical treatise, first published in 1962)
  40. ^ Fukui, Haruhiro (1985). Political Parties of Asia and the Pacific. Greenwood Press. p. 357. ISBN 0-313-21350-X.
  41. ^ See: Sarkar, P. R., 1982.
  42. ^ "When the underlying spirit of humanism is extended to everything, animate and inanimate, in this universe – I have designated this as "Neohumanism". This Neohumanism will elevate humanism to universalism, the cult of love for all created beings of this universe." (Sarkar, P. R., 1982).
  43. ^ A process of continually recognizing each object with which we come in contact, externally or internally, as a manifestation of the Supreme Consciousness (Brahma).
  44. ^ Sarkar, Prabhat Rainjan (1982). "Devotional Sentiment and Neohumanism (Discourse 1)" of The Liberation of Intellect: Neohumanism. Kolkata: Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 81–7252–168–5.
  45. ^ See: Sarkar, P. R., 1987 (vol. 1 and 2).
  46. ^ "The noblest form of social service is to educate the public and create a sense of consciousness in them. This sense of consciousness is to be instilled in every human being. This is your duty. The goal of education is to elevate the all-round standard, and especially the intellectual standard. In addition, the elevation of the moral standard is extremely necessary in the sphere of education. This moral standard is deficient today. It is lacking in the present educational system also. You are to create a new social order. Therefore, you should first acquire more and more knowledge in different spheres of life and also you are to upgrade your morality. Along with your intellectual standard, if you have morality, then everybody will respect you. Try to acquire as much knowledge as possible through our own books. Education which leads to the acquisition of knowledge plus morality makes for a peaceful society." (Sarkar, P. R., Discourses on Neo– humanist Education.).
  47. ^ The International Commission of Jurists (Geneva) and The International League for the Rights of Man (New York) (9 August 1976). "Report on the Ananda Marga leader Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar (Baba) in Patna, India". http://proutglobe.org/prsarkarlegal/Sheppard-Report-9Aug1976.pdf. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
  48. ^ "Religion: Violent Bliss". Time Magazine. 14 May 1973. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,907243,00.html. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
  49. ^ Garda Ghista (20 January 2011). P.R. Sarkar: Beacon of Hope for Suffering Humanity. AuthorHouse.
  50. ^ "40 Years Since Sarkar Was Jailed, Poisoned". Prout Global. January 2011. http://www.proutglobe.org/2011/09/40-years-since-sarkar-was-jailed-poisoned/. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
  51. ^ See Times of India, 5 July 1978
  52. ^ MacDougall, Curtis Daniel (1983). Superstition and the Press. Prometheus Books. p. 446. ISBN 0-87975-211-4.
  53. ^ For a partial list see [1].
  54. ^ Znet - Sohail Inayatullah's article
  55. ^ The History of the Bhojpuri Language, A Few Problems Solved - Part 4, P. R. Sarkar, 1979, Tiljala, Calcutta
  56. ^ Ecofarm Poland - Teachings of Shrii Shrii Anandamurti
  57. ^ Shabda Cayanika-A Collection of Words, Part 1, Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar, 1996, Tiljala, Calcutta, ISBN 81-7252-030-1
  58. ^ The Linguistic Journal, September 2009
  59. ^ PROUT INSTITUTE, P. R. Sarkar
  60. ^ a b c Varna Vijinana-The Science of Letters, Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar, 2000, Ananda Nagar, India, ISBN 81-7252-179-0
  61. ^ a b A Scriptological And Linguistic Survey Of The World, Prout In a Nutshell, Part 17, P. R. Sarkar, 1989, Tiljala, Calcutta
  62. ^ The Language Issue, A Few Problems Solved - Part 9, P. R. Sarkar, 1981, Tiljala, Calcutta
  63. ^ The Fundamentals of Language, A Few Problems Solved - Part 4, P. R. Sarkar, 1979, Tiljala, Calcutta
  64. ^ a b Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (1955). Ánanda Márga Elementary Philosophy. Ananda Marga Pubs.
  65. ^ a b Sarkar, Prabhat Rainjan (1957-1968). Problems of the Day. Ananda Marga Pubs. ISBN 81-7252-19-0.
  66. ^ a b Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti (1956-1995-6th ed.). Ananada Marga Caryacarya, part=1, 2, 3. Ananda Marga Publications.
  67. ^ See [2].
  68. ^ a b Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (1957-1981). A Guide to Human Conduct. Ananda Marga Pubs. ISBN 81–7252–103–0.
  69. ^ a b Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan (1957 first ed. in Bengali, 1983 first ed. in English). Yogic Treatments and Natural Remedies. Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 81–7252–178–2.
  70. ^ a b Sarkar, Prabhat Rainjan (Ac. Pranavnanda Avt. Editor) (1961-2001). Idea and Ideology. Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 81-7252-205-3.
  71. ^ a b Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (1961). Ánanda Sútram. Ananda Marga Pubs. ISBN 81– 7252– 027– 1.
  72. ^ Dharma Mahácakras: large spiritual congregations addressed by Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti, were held in cities and towns all over the world.
  73. ^ a b Sarkar, Shrii Prabhat Ranjan (2004). Ráŕh - The Cradle of Civilization. Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 81-7252-221-3.
  74. ^ "The story of Kalicharan". http://anandamarga.or.id/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=24&Itemid=26. Retrieved 24 March 2008. [dead link]

[edit] Sources

  • Avadhūtika Ānanda Mitra Ācāryā (1981). The Spiritual Philosophy of Shrii Shrii Anandamurti: a Commentary on Ananda Sutram. DenverColorado: Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 81–7252–154–5.
  • Barker, Eileen (1989) New Religious Movements: A Practical Introduction (London: HMSO). Third impression, with amendments, 1992.
  • Coyle, Gary (1985). Progressive socialism. Calcutta: Proutist Universal Publications.
  • Hermans, G. Immink, C. A. M.; A. De Jong, J. Van Der Lans (2001). Social Constructionism and Theology. BRILL. p. 47. ISBN 90-04-12318-0.
  • Bowker, John (2012). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Encyclopedia.com.
  • Ahtrens, Wolfgang (1982-1987). Die Weisheit der Tantralehre. Mainz: Dharma Verlag. ISBN 3-921769-04-3.
  • Dharmavedananda, Ácárya (1999). Travel with the Mystic Master. Singapore: Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 981-04-0864-1.
  • Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (1955). Ánanda Márga Elementary Philosophy. Ananda Marga Pubs. ISBN 81–7252–117–0.
  • Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (1961). Ánanda Sútram. Ananda Marga Pubs. ISBN 81– 7252– 027– 1.
  • Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (1957-1981). A Guide to Human Conduct. Ananda Marga Pubs. ISBN 81–7252–103–0.
  • Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (1959). Tantra and its Effect on Society. Ananda Marga Pubs.
  • Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (Ac. Vijayananda Avt. Editor) (1994). Discourses on Tantra, vol. 1. AMPS-Ananda Printers. ISBN 81–7252–112–X.
  • Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (Ac. Vijayananda Avt. Editor) (1994). Discourses on Tantra, vol. 2. AMPS-Ananda Printers. ISBN 81–7252–112–X.
  • Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (Ac. Narayanananda Avt. Editor, Ac. Vijayananda Avt. transl. from Bengali)) (1985). Namah Shivaya Shantaya. AMPS-Ananda Printers. ISBN 81-7252-098-0.
  • Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (Ac. Sarvatmananda Avt. Editor) (2010-originally published in Bengali: 1958). Yoga Sadhana. Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 978-81-7252-245-2.
  • Ng, Franklin (1995). The Asian American Encyclopedia. Marshall Cavendish. p. 669. ISBN 1-85435-677-1.
  • MacDougall, Curtis Daniel (1983). Superstition and the Press. Prometheus Books. p. 446. ISBN 0-87975-211-4.
  • Miller, Timothy (1999). The 60's Communes: Hippies and Beyond. Syracuse University Press. p. 108. ISBN 0-8156-0601-X.
  • Sarkar, Prabhat Rainjan (Ac. Pranavnanda Avt. Editor) (1961-2001). Idea and Ideology. Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 81-7252-205-3.
  • Sarkar, Prabhat Rainjan (Ac. Krsnatmananda Avt. Editor) (1988-1991). Microvitum in a nutshell. AMPS-Ananda Printers.
  • Sarkar, Prabhat Rainjan (1957-1968). Problems of the Day. Ananda Marga Pubs. ISBN 81-7252-19-0.
  • Sarkar, Prabhat Rainjan (1982). The Liberation of Intellect: Neohumanism. Kolkata: Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 81–7252–168–5.
  • Sarkar, Prabhat Rainjan (1987). Neohumanism in a Nutshell, vol. 1. Kolkata: Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 81-7252-184-7.
  • Sarkar, Prabhat Rainjan (1987). Neohumanism in a Nutshell, vol. 2. Kolkata: Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 81-7252-184-7.
  • Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan (1957 first ed. in Bengali, 1983 first ed. in English). Yogic Treatments and Natural Remedies. Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 81–7252–178–2.
  • Cheong Cheng, Cheong Cheng Yin; et al. (eds.) (2002). Subject Teaching and Teacher Education in the New Century: Research and Innovation. Springer. p. 194. ISBN 962-949-060-9.

[edit] Further reading

  • Brief Biography of Shrii Shrii Anandamurti or P. R. Sarkar
  • P.R. Sarkar (1984), Human Society . Vols. I and II. (Ananda Marga Publications, Calcutta, India).
  • Sri Aurobindo (1970), The Human Cycle, The Ideal of Human Unity, War and Self-Determination, (Sri Aurobindo Ashram Trust), ISBN 81-7058-281-4 (hardcover), ISBN 81-7058-014-5 (paperback)
  • Hatley, Shaman and Inayatullah, Sohail. (1999),"Karma Samnyasa: Sarkar’s reconceptualization of Indian ascetism”, in K. Ishwaran, ed., Ascetic culture: renunciation and worldly engagement (Leiden, Brill,Vol. 73, International Studies in Sociology and Social Anthropology),139-152
  • Inayatullah, Sohail (2002), Understanding Sarkar: The Indian Episteme, Macrohistory and Transformative Knowledge. Leiden, Brill.
  • Inayatullah, Sohail (1999), Situating Sarkar, Tantra, Macrohistory and Alternative Futures. Maleny, Australia, Gurukul Publications.
  • Inayatullah, Sohail and Jennifer Fitzgerald, eds., (1999) Transcending Boundaries: Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar's Theories of Individual and Social Transformation. Maleny, Australia, Gurukul Publications.
  • Inayatullah, Sohail and Galtung, Johan, eds., (1997), Macrohistory and Macrohistorians: Perspectives on Individual, Social and Civilizational Change. Wesport, Ct. Praeger.
  • Inayatullah, Sohail, Bussey, Marcus and Milojevic, Ivana, eds., (2006), Neohumanist educational futures: liberating the pedagogical intellect. Tamsui, Tamkang University, 2006.
  • Tarak. (1990). Ananda Marga, social and spiritual practices. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications.
  • Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti. (1988). Ananda Marga ideology and way of life in a nutshell. Calcutta: Ānanda Mārga Pracāraka Saṁgha.
  • Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti (1995-6th ed.). Ananada Marga Caryacarya, part=1. Ananda Marga Publications.
  • Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti (1987-4th ed.). Ananada Marga Caryacarya, part=2. Ananda Marga Publications.
  • Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti (1992-4th ed.). Ananada Marga Caryacarya, part=3. Ananda Marga Publications.
  • Nandita, & Devadatta. (1971). Path of bliss: Ananda Marga yoga. Wichita, Kan: Ananda Marga Publishers.
  • Avadhūtika Ānanda Mitra Ācāryā (1986). Neo-humanist Education: Education for a New World. Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 0-88476-007-3.
  • Acarya Prasiidananda Avadhuta (1990). Neo-Humanist Ecology. Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 971-8623-12-4.
  • Ananda Marga Aa. Vv. (1973, 2nd ed.). Teaching asanas: An Ananda Marga manual for teacher. Ananda Marga Publications. ISBN 0-88476-000-6.

[edit] External links

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